Allusions in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

In this article, we will explore the allusions in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and unravel their significance in understanding the themes and emotions conveyed by Eliot.

The summary of The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock


“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is a renowned poem by T.S. Eliot that delves into the psyche of its eponymous protagonist. Published in 1915, this modernist masterpiece weaves a tapestry of vivid imagery and introspective musings.

One of the notable elements in the poem is the skillful use of allusions, which enrich the layers of meaning and add depth to Prufrock’s existential ponderings.


The Allusion to “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” in the Epigraph

The poem opens with an epigraph that serves as an allusion to itself, referencing the love song of J. Alfred Prufrock.


The use of the term “love song” immediately invites readers to consider the nature of love and how it is intertwined with Prufrock’s inner monologue.

By placing the poem’s title within the epigraph, Eliot offers a meta-commentary on the theme that will unfold in the subsequent lines.


The Allusion to Michelangelo’s “The Last Judgment”

In one of the most striking allusions in the poem, Eliot draws upon Michelangelo’s famous fresco, “The Last Judgment.”

When Prufrock envisions himself pinned and wriggling on the wall, the reference to the condemned souls in Michelangelo’s work becomes apparent.

This allusion suggests Prufrock’s profound sense of guilt and the fear of facing his own moral reckoning.

The Allusion to Lazarus

The mention of Lazarus in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” alludes to the biblical story of the man who was raised from the dead by Jesus.

Prufrock compares himself to Lazarus, suggesting a state of emotional and spiritual stagnation. This allusion conveys Prufrock’s longing for a rebirth or a revival of his own sense of vitality and purpose.

The Allusion to Hamlet

The allusion to Hamlet, Shakespeare’s tormented prince, reflects Prufrock’s own indecisiveness and internal conflict. Prufrock wonders if he dares to “disturb the universe” and questions whether he should act or retreat.

By invoking the troubled protagonist of Hamlet, Eliot highlights Prufrock’s hesitancy and his struggle to seize opportunities and confront his fears.

The Allusion to John the Baptist

Prufrock’s self-perception as a “pair of ragged claws” alludes to the biblical figure of John the Baptist. In the Gospels, John the Baptist appears as a prophet who foretells the coming of Jesus.

Prufrock’s description of himself as “rare” and “singular” echoes John the Baptist’s role as a solitary figure, serving as a metaphor for Prufrock’s isolation and sense of being an outsider.

The Allusion to the Biblical Story of Lazarus

Eliot incorporates another allusion to the biblical story of Lazarus, this time referring to Lazarus of Bethany.

Prufrock compares himself to Lazarus, suggesting a state of emotional and spiritual stagnation. This allusion conveys Prufrock’s longing for a rebirth or a revival of his own sense of vitality and purpose.

Allusions to Literature and Art

The Allusion to Dante’s “Inferno”

One of the most prominent allusions in the poem is the reference to Dante Alighieri’s “Inferno.” Prufrock’s description of himself measuring out his life with coffee spoons echoes Dante’s depiction of souls in hell measuring out their punishments.

This allusion highlights Prufrock’s sense of monotony and his realization of the passage of time.

The Allusion to Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress”

Eliot skillfully incorporates an allusion to Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress” when Prufrock laments, “There will be time, there will be time.”

This reference emphasizes Prufrock’s sense of urgency and his awareness of life’s brevity. By alluding to Marvell’s poem, Eliot invites readers to consider the theme of fleeting time and its impact on human existence.

The Allusion to Shakespeare’s “Twelfth Night”

In a clever allusion to Shakespeare’s “Twelfth Night,” Prufrock compares himself to the character of Malvolio, who is known for his self-importance and his longing for love.

This allusion underscores Prufrock’s own self-consciousness and his desire for acceptance and affection.

The Allusion to Edmond Dantès from “The Count of Monte Cristo”

Prufrock’s reference to Edmond Dantès, the protagonist of Alexandre Dumas’s “The Count of Monte Cristo,” serves as an allusion to a character who seeks revenge and retribution.

This allusion reflects Prufrock’s own desire for redemption and his longing for a sense of justice in a world that he perceives as indifferent and hostile.

The Allusion to John Milton’s “Paradise Lost”

When Prufrock mentions John Milton’s “Paradise Lost,” he alludes to the epic poem that explores the fall of Adam and Eve and the loss of innocence.

This allusion underscores Prufrock’s own sense of disillusionment and the recognition that he, too, has lost something precious in his life.

The Allusion to Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s “The Lady of Shalott”

Prufrock’s allusion to Tennyson’s “The Lady of Shalott” draws parallels between the Lady of Shalott’s isolation and Prufrock’s own sense of detachment.

The reference to the mirror and the depiction of a life lived vicariously through others reflect Prufrock’s own passivity and his fear of fully engaging with the world.

Allusions to Historical and Cultural Figures

The Allusion to John Keats

Prufrock’s mention of John Keats alludes to the Romantic poet known for his exploration of beauty and the transient nature of life.

The allusion to Keats emphasizes Prufrock’s own yearning for aesthetic experiences and his awareness of the ephemeral nature of beauty.

The Allusion to Hesiod

Eliot incorporates an allusion to Hesiod, an ancient Greek poet, when Prufrock mentions “There will be time to wonder, ‘Do I dare?'” This allusion reflects Prufrock’s contemplation of the consequences of his actions and echoes Hesiod’s moral teachings and emphasis on the importance of making deliberate choices.

The Allusion to Michelangelo

Prufrock’s allusion to Michelangelo highlights the theme of artistic expression and the tension between creation and self-doubt.

By referencing the renowned artist, Prufrock grapples with his own sense of inadequacy and questions the value of his own creative endeavors.

The Allusion to Lazarus of Bethany

The mention of Lazarus of Bethany alludes to the biblical story of the man who was raised from the dead by Jesus.

This allusion suggests a desire for renewal and rebirth within Prufrock, as he longs to break free from his emotional and social constraints.

The Allusion to King Claudius

Prufrock’s reference to King Claudius, a character from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet,” serves as an allusion to deceit and manipulation.

This allusion underscores Prufrock’s own feelings of inadequacy and his fear of being judged by others.

The Allusion to Salome

When Prufrock mentions Salome, he alludes to the biblical figure who demanded the head of John the Baptist.

This allusion highlights Prufrock’s own feelings of powerlessness and his fear of being consumed by the desires of others.

Allusions to Symbolism and Imagery

The Allusion to the Mermaids

The allusion to mermaids in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” evokes a sense of enchantment and allure. Prufrock imagines the mermaids singing and suggests that they would not sing to him.

This allusion symbolizes Prufrock’s yearning for connection and his recognition that he remains on the sidelines, unable to fully engage with life’s pleasures.

The Allusion to the Evening Spread Out Against the Sky

In one of the most iconic images in the poem, Eliot alludes to the evening spread out against the sky. This allusion creates a vivid picture of the twilight hours, capturing a moment of stillness and contemplation.

It represents Prufrock’s inclination towards introspection and his propensity for observing rather than actively participating in the world around him.

The Allusion to the Sea Girls

The mention of the sea girls alludes to mythological creatures associated with the Sirens from Greek mythology.

This allusion highlights Prufrock’s susceptibility to temptation and his fear of succumbing to the allure of desires and pleasures that may ultimately lead to his downfall.

The Allusion to the Streets That Follow Like a Tedious Argument

When Prufrock describes the streets that follow like a tedious argument, he alludes to the monotony and repetition of everyday life.

This allusion emphasizes Prufrock’s sense of disillusionment and his longing for something more meaningful and profound.

The Allusion to the Serpent-Eating It’s Tail

The allusion to the serpent-eating its tail, known as the ouroboros, represents the cyclical nature of life and the eternal recurrence of the same. This allusion reflects Prufrock’s realization that his own existence is characterized by repetition and a sense of stagnation.

The Allusion to the Eternal Footman

The mention of the eternal footman in the poem alludes to death, personified as a servant or gatekeeper. This allusion underscores Prufrock’s awareness of his mortality and his contemplation of the inevitability of death, which adds to his sense of existential angst.

Allusions to Social and Political Commentary

The Allusion to Prince Hamlet’s Indecision

Prufrock’s allusion to Prince Hamlet’s indecision highlights the theme of paralysis and inaction.

Like Hamlet, Prufrock finds himself caught in a web of doubt and uncertainty, unable to take decisive action or seize opportunities.

This allusion serves as a commentary on the consequences of hesitancy and the impact it has on one’s sense of self.

The Allusion to Class Distinctions in Society

Prufrock’s allusion to the class distinctions in society reflects his own awareness of social hierarchies and his feelings of inadequacy. This allusion suggests that Prufrock is conscious of the limitations imposed by societal norms and the barriers that prevent him from fully engaging with others.

The Allusion to the Feminine Ideal of Beauty

Eliot incorporates an allusion to the feminine ideal of beauty when Prufrock mentions the phrase “the eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase.”

This allusion reflects the societal expectations and standards of beauty that Prufrock feels compelled to conform to. It also emphasizes Prufrock’s own insecurities and his fear of judgment based on appearances.

The Allusion to the Decadence of Society

Prufrock’s allusion to the decadence of society suggests a critique of the superficiality and moral decay prevalent in his surroundings. This allusion serves as a commentary on the disillusionment and alienation experienced by individuals within a society that values superficiality and materialism.

The Allusion to the Anxiety of Aging

When Prufrock contemplates the “bald spot in the middle of my hair,” he alludes to the anxieties and insecurities associated with aging.

This allusion reflects Prufrock’s preoccupation with his own mortality and the fear of losing his vitality and attractiveness as he grows older.

The Allusion to Social Conformity and Isolation

Prufrock’s allusion to social conformity and isolation is evident in his musings about wearing a face to meet the faces that he meets. This allusion highlights Prufrock’s awareness of the masks people wear in social interactions and the sense of isolation that arises from a lack of genuine connection.

The Bottom Line

“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is a deeply introspective and complex poem that employs a wide range of allusions to convey its themes and meanings. Through allusions to literature, art, history, and culture, T.S. Eliot enriches the poem, inviting readers to explore the depths of Prufrock’s psyche and his struggle for self-expression and connection.

By incorporating allusions to various works and figures, Eliot not only adds depth and complexity to Prufrock’s character but also offers social, cultural, and historical contexts that shed light on the human condition. The allusions serve as a bridge between Prufrock’s personal struggles and universal themes, allowing readers to resonate with the poem on a deeper level.

“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” stands as a testament to Eliot’s mastery of poetic technique and his ability to create a multi-layered narrative that speaks to the complexities of the human experience. Through the intricate web of allusions, Eliot’s poem remains a timeless exploration of self, society, and the universal longing for connection and meaning.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the main themes in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?

“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” explores various themes, including alienation, self-doubt, the passage of time, and the fear of social judgment. The poem delves into Prufrock’s innermost thoughts and emotions, revealing his struggle with identity and his longing for meaningful connections.

What is the significance of the title “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?

The title of the poem signifies Prufrock’s desire to express his emotions and desires through a love song. However, the ironic use of “love song” suggests that Prufrock’s yearnings remain unfulfilled, and his inability to articulate his feelings adds to his sense of isolation and detachment.

How does T.S. Eliot use allusions in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?

Eliot masterfully employs allusions to various literary, artistic, and historical figures to deepen the meaning of the poem. These allusions serve to enhance the reader’s understanding of Prufrock’s inner world, his struggles, and the societal context in which he exists.

What is the role of allusions in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?

The allusions in the poem serve multiple purposes. They add layers of meaning and depth to Prufrock’s thoughts and emotions, establish connections with other works of literature and art, and provide social and cultural context. The allusions contribute to the richness and complexity of the poem.

What is the overall mood of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?

The overall mood of the poem is one of introspection, melancholy, and existential angst. Prufrock’s introspective musings and the contemplation of his own inadequacies create a sense of unease and a yearning for something more meaningful in life.

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